Volcano eruption is a part of volcanic activity known as the “eruption”. Almost all the volcanic activity associated with an active seismic zone because associated with plate boundaries. On this plate boundary change in pressure and temperature is very high so as to melt the surrounding material that is the incandescent liquid (magma). Magma will mengintrusi surrounding rock or soil through cracks rekahan- closer to the surface of the earth.
Each volcano has its own characteristics when viewed from the type of vomit or product. But any kind of products volcanic eruption activity remains catastrophic for life. Danger of volcanic eruptions have destructive and deadly risk, earthquake emergency kit
Danger Volcano Eruption divided into two by the time it happened, that
Top Danger (Primary)
- Heat clouds , a mixture of material between the gas and rock eruptions (all sizes) is pushed down due to the high density and a saturated dough rolled turbulently like clouds down the mountain slopes. In addition to very high temperatures, between 300-700 0 C, lumpurnyapun very high speed,> 70 km / h (depending on slope).
- Throw Materials (incandescent) , occurs when the eruption (magmatic) takes place. Far lontarannya depends on the size of the eruption energy, could reach hundreds of meters away. In addition to a high temperature (> 200 0 C), the size of the material was large with a diameter of> 10 cm so it can burn at a time to hurt, even deadly sentient beings. Also commonly referred to as “volcanic bombs”.
- Abu heavy rain , occurs when a volcanic eruption is in progress. Fine-sized material (ash and fine sand) that wind and rain fell as ash and direction depending on the wind direction. Because the size is fine, these materials will be very dangerous for the respiratory, eye, ground water pollution, destruction of vegetation and contains chemical elements that are acidic so it can lead to corrosion of the zinc and aircraft engines.
- Lava , the magma reaches the surface, the nature of liquid (a viscous fluid and high temperature, between 700-1200 0 C. Because the liquid, then lava flows generally follow the slope and burn anything in its path. When the lava has cooled, then form into stone ( igneous rocks) and the local path will be a stone fields.
- Toxic gases , appears not always preceded by volcanic eruptions because this gas can exit through cavities or fractures-fractures found in volcanic regions. The main gas that usually arises is CO 2 , H 2 S, HCl, SO 2 , and CO. Which often causes death is gas CO 2 . Some mountain that has the characteristics of a toxic gas eruption is the volcano Tangkuban Perahu, Dieng Volcano, Mount Ciremai, and Mount Papandayan.
- Tsunami, generally can occur in volcanic island, where the explosion occurred when the materials will provide energy to push the sea water towards the coast, causing a tsunami. The greater the volume the greater the eruption material wave lifted ashore. For example is the case of the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883.
Followup danger (Secondary)
Danger follow volcanic eruptions are dangers that occur after the explosion took place. When a volcano will erupt in the accumulation of material in various sizes at the summit and upper slopes. In the rainy season, most of the material will be carried away by rainwater and mud created dough down into the valley as rocks flood, the flood is called lava.
Preparation Facing Volcanic Eruption
- Recognizing the local area to determine a safe place to evacuate.
- Make a plan for disaster management.
- Prepare for evacuation if necessary.
- Preparing basic needs
If There Volcanic Eruption
- Avoid areas prone to disasters such as mountain slopes, valleys and lava flow area.
- Open space, protect themselves from the ash and pyroclastic. Prepare yourself for the possibility of aftershocks.
- Wear clothing that can protect the body such as: long sleeves, long pants, hats and more.
- Do not wear contact lenses.
- Wear a mask or cloth to cover the mouth and nose
- When the decline in hot clouds try to cover her face with both hands.
After Volcanic Eruption Occurred
- Stay away from areas affected by ash
- Clean the roof of the ashes. Due to its weight, can damage or tear down the roof of the building.
- Avoid driving in areas affected by ash can cause engine damage
VOLCANO DISASTER MITIGATION
Efforts to reduce the number of casualties and property losses due to volcanic eruptions, action needs to be done:
- Monitoring , volcanic activity was monitored for 24 hours using a seismic recorder (seismograph). Daily data monitoring results are reported to the office of the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (DVMBG) in Bandung using SSB radio communication. The volcano observation post officers submit monthly reports to the local government.
- Emergency , the actions taken by DVMBG when increased volcanic activity, among other things evaluate the report and data, forming the Emergency Response Team, sent a team to the location, conduct an integrated examination.
- Mapping , Map Disaster Prone Region volcano can explain the type and nature of volcanic hazards, disaster-prone areas, the direction of escape, refugee camps, and post disaster management.
- The investigation of the volcano using the method of Geology, Geophysics and Geochemistry. The investigation is shown in the form of books, maps and other documents.
- Socialization , officers dissemination to local governments and communities, especially those living around the volcano. A form of socialization may be sending information to local governments and direct outreach to the community.