Disaster is an event or series of events that threaten and disrupt the lives and livelihood caused by both natural factors and non-natural factors and human factors resulting in the emergence of human lives, environmental damage, loss of property and psychological impact. Earthquake emergency kit examples of natural disasters include, among others in the form of earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, droughts, hurricanes and land langsor. While non-natural disasters are examples of social conflicts, epidemics and outbreaks of disease.

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Judging from the location of geological, weather and social conditions, Indonesia is vulnerable to a variety of disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, landslides, storms and hurricanes, disease, drought and volcanoes. Appear when the threat of natural disasters (such as volcanoes) met with vulnerable communities (villages on the slopes of the volcano) that have a low ability or lack the ability to respond to the threat of it (no training or understanding of the volcano or not alert). The impact that emerges is the disruption of community life such as the destruction of homes, property damage and loss of life.
Because most disasters can happen anywhere with little or no warning, it is important to prepare for disasters to reduce the risk of impact. Through public education, can do some things to reduce the risk of disaster. In addition, so that the public knows the steps of disaster management so as to reduce the threat, reduce the impact, to prepare themselves appropriately in the event of a threat, safety, healing, and repair the damage that happens to be a safe community, independent and resilient to disasters
The volcano erupted as a result of magma in the earth were pushed out by a high-pressure gas or due to the movement of tectonic plates, pile the pressure and the hot liquid magma. The explosion brought ash and rock that burst with a bang, while the lava can flood the surrounding area. As a result of the eruption could cause casualties and huge property in the area radius of thousands of kilometers and could even affect the climate on earth is round, as happened at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines and Krakatoa in Banten Province, Indonesia.
a. impact eruption
Volcanic gases are gases released during a volcanic eruption, including Carbon Monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen (N2) which is harmful to humans. Lava is a very high temperature magma fluid that flows to the surface through volcanic craters. Lava dilute able to flow away from the source following the river or the valley, while viscous lava flows not far from the source.
Lahar is a flash flood on the slopes which consists of a mixture of volcanic material sized lump of clay till. Lava can be either hot or cold lava lava. Hot lava from the eruption of the volcano which has a crater lake, where the water of the lake gets hot and then mixed with the material out of the mouth of the eruption and the mountain. Cold or raining lava lava eruptions occur due to material mixing with rain water around the mountain and then make mud viscous and flows from the mountainside. This sludge can be hot or cold.
Hot clouds (wedhus trash) is the result of volcanic eruptions of the most dangerous because there is no way to escape the heat clouds except to evacuate before the mountain hot blowing is a cloud of material small eruption hot, exhaled winds with speeds up to 90 km per hour. Dropping hot cloud is a cloud of hot material large and small eruption that was brought up by the great strength of the eruption.
Large-sized material will fall around the peak, while the fine would fall in the tens, hundreds and even thousands of kilometers from the summit because of the influence of wind gusts. Hot clouds can cause severe burns to exposed body parts like the head, arm, neck or leg, and also cause shortness of breath until it can not breathe.
The eruption of volcano ash eruption is a very delicate material. Due to the impact of wind gusts could be felt hundreds of kilometers away. In such a large eruption happened in Mount Krakatau ash generated even cover matahasi rays for weeks.

b. Preparation Preparedness Measures in the Face Eruption
Concrete steps in preparedness eruption include:
  1. Recognizing the signs of disaster, mountain character and threats
  2. Make a map of threats, recognize the threat area, a safe area
  3. Establishing early warning systems
  4. Develop community radio to disseminate information about the status of the volcano
  5. Observing and understanding the volcano Map Prone Regions issued by the competent authority
  6. Preparing for disaster management planning and refugee camps track is ready with material basic needs (water, latrines, food, first aid) if necessary
  7. Preparing basic needs and important documents
  8. Monitor information provided by the volcano observation post (coordinated by the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation). Volcano observation post usually communicate the development status of the volcano via radio communication

c . The action Should Do When There Eruption
Actions taken when it has happened eruption are:
  1. Avoid areas prone to disasters such as mountain slopes, canyons, dry river flow and lava flow areas Avoid the outdoors, protect yourself from the ash eruptions
  2. Sign emergency protection space in the event of hot clouds
  3. Prepare yourself for the possibility of aftershocks Wear clothing that can protect the body, such as long-sleeved shirts, long pants, hats and more
  4. Protecting the eyes from dust, if any use eye protection such as goggles or anything that could prevent the entry of dust into the eyes Do not wear contact lenses
  5. Wear a mask or cloth to cover the mouth and nose
  6. When the decline of mountain ash try to cover her face with both hands
d. The action Should Do After the occurrence of eruption
After the eruption then that should be done is:
  1. Stay away from areas affected by ash
  2. Clean the roof of the ash heap because of the weight can damage or tear down the roof of the building
  3. Avoid driving in areas affected by ash falls because it could damage the engine, brakes, gearbox and ignition
Handling the eruption of the volcano is divided into three parts, the preparation before the eruption, when the explosion occurred and after the eruption.
a. Handling prior to eruption
  1. Monitoring and surveillance of activities in all active volcanoes
  2. Manufacture and supply of Disaster Prone Areas Map and Hazard Risk Zone Map Volcanos are supported by the Geological Map of the volcano
  3. Implement procedures remain volcanic eruption disaster management
  4. Coaching and the provision of information volcano
  5. Investigation and research of geological, geophysical and geochemical volcano
  6. Upgrading human resources (HR) and its supporting infrastructure such as infrastructure improvement san
b. Handling time of eruption
  1. Memebentuk fast moving team
  2. Increase monitoring and observation, supported by the addition of adequate equipment
  3. Improve reporting groove activity levels and frequency of reporting in accordance with the requirements
  4. Provide recommendations to the local government in accordance with procedures

c. Handling after eruption
  1. Inventory data, including the distribution and volume of the eruption
  2. Identify areas threatened by disasters
  3. Mmemberikan disaster management advice
  4. Regional arrangements provide short-term and long-term
  5. Fixing the broken monitoring facility
  6. Lowering the status of the activities, if things had gone downhill
  7. Continue monitoring on an ongoing basis.


Anti-Smog Building, Paris

The buildings were built in 2007 act as filters for air pollution Paris, earthquake emergency kit designed by Vincent Callebaut.
Outside the building of the first building in the form of capsules filled photovoitaic 250 m2 of solar panels (PV) is coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2)
PV panels generate electrical energy local and TiO2 working with ultraviolet radiation reacts with particles in the air eradicate pollution and air contamination.

The inside after the outer layer, there are spaces for the public with a wide courtyard with a natural pond, which, according to the architect as a place to learn about urban ecology and renewable energy. Green space on the roof produce rainwater that can be used inside buildings.

Building “Wind Tower”, the second building of the Anti-Smog this upward spiral-shaped building filled Vertical Axis Wind Turbines ( VA WT), which captures the power of wind. Circulation of people in the form of a ramp to bring to the roof garden with views of Paris. 

Anti-flood home Assurance Will Not Be Affected By Flooding

Having a minimalist home is certainly not just a home to buy just because a house will certainly be a place for someone to live with the family in a period of relatively long time. Looking at it of course before buying a home should be considered first things that can support a person’s activity and also make it at home, ranging from access to public facilities and the environment.

In addition, the current phenomenon in large cities have problems with poor drainage, causing flooding everywhere. It certainly should be avoided. Therefore must be selective in choosing a dwelling house, for example with anti-flood condition, so there are no regrets later in life earthquake kit .Anti-flood home or away from the threat of flooding will be a very good choice, and should be the first choice when you are going to buy a house. Anti-flood home in Indonesia be the main target of people, especially in big cities like Jakarta and others who get a real threat of flooding.

Those who sell anti-flooding would be much in demand by buyers. As the purchaser must satisfy itself that the anti-flooding homes are also situated in a location away from the threat of flooding as well. If it turns out the location frequent flooding, of course, although it claimed to be anti-flood house would still be at risk of flooding as well.

You must ensure with certainty that neither the location nor the anti-flooding her house. Because if once stuck buying a house that turned out to be frequent flooding of regret will come long before you sell the house back. Many developers offer residential-style housing in the area despite the floods, but the anti-flooding because it is supported by the circulatory system as the number of water pumps water into the sea so totally anti-flood when the flood came, and the settlement is not affected flood. But the developers of this house sells anti-flood home at a fantastic price, could reach billions of rupiah per unit.

Prickly Problem Sweat In Infants? Here’s How To Overcome It

Prickly heat is one type of health disorder of the skin that often affects children. These disorders often appear during the dry season. The emergence of prickly heat in infants must be treated in a proper way because it is very dangerous to health of the skin, especially the skin on the head, face, and neck. If not quickly treated, or how to resolve it wrong,  buntet will cause skin irritation, infection, and cause discomfort.

How to overcome the prickly heat safely and properly in the baby should be seen first type of sweat buntet her. Because not all types of spots that appear due to blockage of the pores of the skin as sweat out fairly dangerous roads, in other words can heal by itself.

In the medical world, skin health issues ‘prickly heat’ referred Miliary . Whereas people used to call Java keringet buntet . Problems of the skin is very annoying and can affect anyone at any age. However, the age of infants and children are especially susceptible to heat rash because their skin is still sensitive.

Prickly heat rash in infants and children generally occurs around the head, face, neck, abdomen to the back. To overcome  buntet in infants, should be done with caution. Remember! their skin is still very sensitive to drugs.

What Causes Prickly Sweat Baby In Children?

Simply put, Miliary (keringet buntet) arise due to blockage of the pores of the skin into the road (lane) sweat.

The blockage comes from dirt, dust and germs then result in the formation of red spots that itch. The more the skin pores are clogged, so the more prickly heat that appears.

Types And Symptoms emergence Buntet Sweat?

The medical world knows 3 types Miliary are classified based on the location of the blockage of sweat ducts, which Miliary crystalline , Miliary rubra , and Miliary deep .

For this type of crystalline and rubra can occur at any age, but the type of Miliary deep, more common in adults than children under five.

  1. If prickly heat in infants appears in the neck, head, and upper body, it is called Miliary crystalline . Clinically looked tiny bubbles containing clear liquid with a size of 1-2 millimeters and can break easily if pressed. These types are relatively harmless because it is rarely accompanied by inflammation and did not cause complaints in children.
  2. If prickly heat on the head, neck, groin and armpits, it is called Miliary rubra . Clearly visible red spots and tiny bubbles containing clear liquid on the basis of redness. This type classified as dangerous because it gives at once smarting itching on the skin surface.
  3. If a new heat rash after miliaria rubra is repeated, then called Miliary deep . Clinically visible white spots, hard to measure 1-3 millimeters without causing itching and skin inflammation. This type are rare and seldom experienced by infants.

How To Prevent Sweat Biang Appears In Toddlers

Despite the prickly heat is a health disorder is quite common in children and is considered a trivial matter, but when it happens to be extremely disruptive and cause discomfort. Therefore, prevention measures is better than cure prickly heat in infants.

    • Choose clothing that absorbs sweat example of cotton clothing.
    • Substitution of baby clothing that was wet with sweat.
    • Avoid wearing clothing made of wool because of the ability to absorb sweat less and often cause itching on the skin of children who are still classified as sensitive.

A knit hat (wool) can cause sweat buntet in the baby’s head

  • If the child is excessive sweat, try more frequent washing, especially before bed.

How to Overcome Biang Sweat In Infants?

    • If the child has Miliary crystalline, then you do not need to worry because it does not have to be treated. Prickly heat this type will heal itself gradually when the child’s skin stays cool and dry.
    • Take care of baby’s skin hygiene to how to bathe and change clothes regularly so that the skin can breathe properly.
    • How to get rid of prickly heat in infants kind of miliary rubra (causing the pain) is to apply a lotion specifically for children that contain calamine.

Special lotion to treat sweat buntet in infants

  • Do not give too thick powder on the scalp is wet because it can form a dough that can lead to blockage of the pores. If the pore is obstructed, then easy buntet in the baby’s head appeared.
  • Cut the baby’s nails regularly to avoid scratching the skin affected by prickly heat so it does not cause irritation or skin infections.
  • Aloe vera is an herbal substance that can provide a sense of cold on the skin. Apply aloe vera gel to the affected body area keringet buntet that discomfort can be reduced.
  • A mixture of 1 tablespoon of baking soda and 1 cup of cold water can be a more simple solution to overcome the prickly heat. Use a washcloth to compress part of the blockage of the pores.
  • If prickly heat in children is very severe and has been going on skin infection due to scratching, take it to a doctor for further medical treatment.

Learning From Earthquakes Nepal

Nepal earthquake occurred on 25 April 2015 with a strength of 7.9 magnitude and re-experiencing an earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on May 12, 2015. Thousands of people are reported dead, many still undiscovered, injury, physical damage, and lead to a crisis on Nepalis. Judging from the history of natural disasters that occurred in Nepal, major earthquakes have occurred in Nepal in 1934, 1966, 1980, and 1988.

Each earthquake caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. Nepal itself is a country with levels of hazards (threats) earthquake is high based on the location of Nepal that are in the Indian and Eurasian continental plates that collide resulting in earthquakes.

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Based on some of the analysis of the number of fatalities, injuries or physical damage is caused in Nepal itself has a vulnerability ( vulnerability ) associated with the threat of earthquakes, earthquake kit list some vulnerabilities was less unprepared citizens in the face of the possibility of an earthquake, because of the earthquake last in history occurred in 1988.

Many buildings are not designed or reduce the likelihood of anti-earthquake badly damaged by the earthquake, and the building that was the old age so easily collapsed in the quake. With the hazards and vulnerability is high, the fair finally many fatalities, injuries and physical damage caused by the earthquake.

WHO mentions three components of the disaster, the hazards , vulnerability and risk . Hazards (hazard / threat) is experiencing potential disasters that can impact on the loss of life, injury, or loss / damage to the material. Characterized catastrophic potential location, intensity, frequency, and the possibilities that can happen. Vulnerability is a condition of vulnerability caused by physical factors, social, economic, and environmental effects associated with hazards . Risk is the possibility of experiencing the negative impact of disaster damage or a combination of hazards and vulnerability .

In connection with the earthquake disaster Nepal, Indonesia can learn from such disasters as Indonesia also have hazards and vulnerability are high that has a risk of high as well. Indonesia prone to earthquakes and has proved one of the natural disasters that frequently hit Indonesia is an earthquake. Why is that, because Indonesia Indonesia covered by the Pacific ring of fire arc ( Pacific ring of fire ) as indicated by the chain of mountains of Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara and Maluku.

In Indonesia, there are as many as approximately 129 volcanoes are still active and the number of volcanoes in Indonesia as much as 14 percent of the active volcano on earth. If the track circuit made volcanoes in Indonesia, length 7,000-7,500 kilometers and a width of 50-200 kilometers.

Indonesia is also located at the confluence of three major tectonic plates of the earth, namely the Indian Ocean and Australia in the south, the Pacific Ocean to the East and Eurasia. The third relative movement of tectonic plates and two other plates, the Philippine Sea and the Carolina cause earthquakes in the border area between the plates meeting and also lead to a fault-regional fault which then became the regional center of the earthquake source.

Referring to the history of the earthquake in Indonesia has resulted in the number of casualties could not be said a little, injuries, and damage to infrastructure. This is a proof of risk which is owned by Indonesia regarding the earthquake disaster is high. In addition to the hazards , Indonesia also has been questioned about its readiness in the face of the earthquake. Readiness in the face of the threat of earthquakes that can occur at any time can include how to save themselves when it is inside the building, while inside the building, and while traveling by car.

What if a big earthquake densely populated places and buildings like most areas in major cities of Indonesia ?. Not many of us are aware of the importance of disaster preparedness. How many of us who became aware after the earthquake Nepal? Do we have to wait after a new incident reacted to prepare? We should be able to learn from Nepal earthquake, that our country also has great potential to experience a similar incident and have plenty of evidence of the history of the earthquake that occurred in Indonesia to prepare for disasters that may occur at any time.

Nepal Earthquake year and 12 facts behind it …

Luka torn when the earthquake occurred in Nepal 25 April 2015 until now has not healed, best earthquake kit in areas where the damage occurred is running very slow rebuilding.

At least there are 12 facts that prove that the process of restoration of the lives of people there walking very slowly.

1. The headless Stupa
Boudhanath in the capital of Nepal , Kathmandu, including the world’s cultural heritage of UNESCO .

The stupa was that so one important goal Buddhist pilgrimage from the Himalayas, the loss of one of the peak of the roof. Is still being restored.

2. Should be demolished
Durbar Square (Durbar field) also includes a world cultural heritage of UNESCO .

The temple complex was first damaged by an earthquake. Some temples had been demolished, while a number of other possibilities can not be saved again.

3. Living among the supporting pillars
Residents Kathmandu are familiar with the views of the buildings damaged by the earthquake.

Repairs are not going well apparently accepted without much protest.

4. As last year
the District Sindhupalchowk, east of Kathmandu, so one of the areas worst-hit.

Now Chautara populated town of 15,000 people, it still looks like when the earthquake just happened.

5. Clinics in tents
admissions from the emergency in Chautara. Doctors often still have to work under the hood.

The old building how susceptible because of the earthquake, so it can only be used again after a thorough refurbishment.

6. Not to tap home-roofed shack
Like last year, in Sindhupalchowk most people still live in shacks with tin roofs.

More than 80 percent of houses were destroyed by the earthquake. Especially in rural areas, there is little help.

7. Infectious diseases
huts set up temporary. Many people live in a narrow space together. Infectious diseases spread very easily.

8. Help yourself
Residents had long been looking forward again on aid from the government in Kathmandu.

They take steps to help themselves.

9. There can be saved
Almost all schools in Sindhupalchowk fully can not be used again.

Some things can be repaired, but nothing that can not, such as schools in Mailchaur.

Cold and isolated 10.
The process of learning is held in classrooms while. Construction tin huts cuara susceptible to wind and bad, and can not be warmed.

11. The rest of the ruins of
the high school students still remember the disaster that occurred a year ago. Thulosirubari school in the field is still lying about the rest of the old buildings were demolished.

12. Not much damage Everest
in the Khumbu region also found the silent witness of the earthquake disaster last year.

But, compared with Sindhupalchowk district, tourist area around Mount Everest is not much damage.

Principles Make Earthquake Resistant Houses

Indonesia is located in an earthquake-prone location. In the last few years earthquakes occur more frequently. There is no technology that can predict earthquakes, so often earthquakes many casualties. The majority of deaths caused by the collapse of the building.

Many of the buildings in Indonesia were built without regard to principles of earthquake resistant houses. Whereas build earthquake-resistant houses is a kehar usan in earthquake prone areas like Indonesia. Earthquake disaster kit the basic principles of earthquake resistant buildings that is as simple and symmetrical .??Denah ?. The structure is simple and symmetrical buildings can withstand seismic forces better than the building of irregular shape.

Principles Make Earthquake Resistant Houses

This is because the force of the earthquake can be distributed evenly to all the elements of the structure. Plan a simple and symmetrical will help us determine the location of the points column and the foundation will be the order of the main structure of the house.

Selection of lightweight building material? The magnitude of the earthquake that struck the style of a building directly proportional to the weight of the building. That’s why a building as much as possible is made with lighter materials.

Japan is a country that is applying earthquake-resistant construction technology is best. Traditional Japanese houses mostly wooden structure one level. Antarruangan partition wearing bamboo and paper is very mild.

Indonesian traditional house also appeared designed to withstand earthquakes by our ancestors. The use of wood and bamboo structures with thatched roofs or fibers shown to survive when the earthquake ?? We have banya building materials to support the planning of earthquake resistant houses. Call it the brick walls of aerated concrete or lightweight, lightweight steel frame, asphalt tile or corrugated iron, and gypsum partitions or GRC.

Load-bearing construction system? To create the construction of earthquake-resistant houses, structures foundation, columns, beams, and roof structures must be made together with an adequate connection. For wood construction, in addition to additional cross structures (bracing), should also be equipped with a steel plate fastener at each disconnected, so that motion is so flexible.

Building with reinforced concrete structure should wear appropriate reinforcement with structural calculations, both the main reinforcement or ring. Connections between columns, foundations and sloof also be aware of the details, in order to have sufficient strength to withstand earthquake loads.

Behind Benefits, Turns It Danger Drinking Coffee for Health

Coffee was able to eliminate sleepiness, but in addition to having a variety of benefits, you also have to know that coffee can also be harmful to health drinks. Yes, the coffee can be very dangerous to health if taken in excess, because coffee can also increase the levels of stress hormones in the body and lead to addictions to caffeine. In addition, the following four health problems will you face if its frequency of drinking coffee.

1. Drinking coffee increases the risk of stroke. A study published in the Journal of Neurology, and Psychiatry 2002 Neurosurgry explain that drinking more than five cups of coffee per day can increase the risk of damage to the blood vessel wall.

2. Caffeine in coffee can also cause insomnia, nervousness, headache, feeling tense and very easy to get angry.

3. coffee or caffeine-containing foods is not recommended for pregnant women. Because caffeine can increase heart rate. In the fetus can affect the placenta and into the fetal blood circulation.

4. The coffee decaffeinated or caffeine-free coffee can also cause harmful effects to the health of the heart. The coffee is known to increase the levels of certain cholesterol in the blood because decaffeinated coffee made from beans with very high fat content.

Japan Earthquake Difference equations with & Ecuador

In the last few days we were surprised by the occurrence of earthquake Japan, according to the USGS occurred on 14 April 2016 at 22:03 pm and dated 15 April 2016 at 23:25 pm. Japan Earthquake Japan earthquake first with the second only 25 hours later with a magnitude of earthquakes is greater. Intermittent 31.5 hours later, an earthquake with a magnitude greater struck Ecuador on 17 April 2016 at 6:58 AM. On this occasion, I tried to discuss, roughly what similarities and differences between the two earthquakes that?

japan earthquake 5

Read here: earthquake kit list

1. Sources of the Japanese earthquake and Ecuador
According to the USGS, the earthquake Japan with a magnitude 7 occurred on land epicenter Mw 32 782 ° N, 130 726 ° E with a depth of 10.0 km. An earthquake of this land give strong enough shock effect because it is located 10 Km underfoot occupation Kumamoto province.

Almost as well as the Japanese earthquake, Ecuador earthquake which occurred on 17 April 2016 occurred on land and the epicenter 0.371 ° N 79 940 ° W at a depth of 19.2 km. Although the epicenter equally on the ground, both the quake had a mechanism different earthquake .

2. Mechanism Earthquake
Japanese earthquake with magnitude 7 Mw, according to the USGS occurred by a mechanism in the form of Fault sources Scroll to the direction of the fault moves to 222 ° field of rubble north and inclination of 77 ° from the horizontal plane.

japan earthquake source
Japan earthquake source mechanisms such as shear fracture (left image) and the seismic source mechanisms such as fault ride Ecuador (picture right). (Image Source: USGS, 2016)
Unlike the Japanese earthquake, earthquake seismic sources such as Ecuador have Fault Ride with the direction of the fault moves to 26 ° field of rubble north and inclination of 23 ° from the horizontal plane. Ecuador quake occurred in a subduction zone as a result of interaction between Nasca plate and the Pacific plate.

3. Strength of the Land Shocks
Japanese Earthquake
The epicenter of the earthquake in Japan (Left) and Ecuador (right) are shown with an arrow (USGS, 2016)
Having a source mechanism and depth of different sources, the Japanese earthquake and Ecuador have a little difference in strength of ground shaking. Based on the map of the ground shaking (intensity scale) issued by the USGS as shown in FIG.

Japanese earthquake with magnitude 7 shock Mw scale land has a stronger intensity. USGS noted the scale of intensity up to IX MMI ( Modified Mercalli Intensity) along the source of the fault.

Ecuador quake with a magnitude of 7.8 Mw has a level of ground shaking in the scale of intensity VIII MMI, lower than Japan’s earthquake.

4. Number of Victims
Japan Earthquake that occurred 14 and 15 April 2016 has led to 42 people were killed, over 3000 injured, and 44,000 people to flee and destroying a number of buildings ( Jiji Press ).

BBC Indonesia noted, until I write this article, Ecuador quake with a magnitude of more powerful has caused 235 people died, 1500 were injured. Number of victims of more earthquake Ecuador compared to the Japanese earthquake.

5. Damage
The second quake had caused severe damage in areas close to the earthquake source. The picture below will be explained as a second level of damage due to the earthquake.

Studying the Earth layer with Earthquake Data

So far, we’ve been introduced to some of the layers of the earth. When we first learn geography in high school, the reader must have seen the earth split and appear multiple layers. When looking at the layers of the earth, it would appear the questions in our minds about “how geoscience experts know the thickness of the layer of earth and physical properties (liquid or solid) layer of the earth”.

 Since time immemorial, humans continue to try to learn the layers of the earth by means of drilling lining but very limited drilling method therein. The deepest drilling ever perpetrated by man to date is 12 Km in Russia (cmiiw). The drilling was hampered by very hot temperatures under the surface and it is not possible to drill up to a depth exceeding 12 Km. If “ngebor” wrote only up12 Km, how the experts can be certain terrestrial muplikasi core layer of the earth to the Earth? Answers to these questions on the use of seismic methods (vibration / earthquake waves) that has long been used by geophysicists.
Layer of earth

Seismic Method and Earth Layers

Methods Seismic is one method of measurement Geophysical most widely used by experts Geophysics in studying the earth and looking for natural resources (oil, natural gas, etc.), even though there are still many many geophysical methods such as methods Geolistrik, geomagnetic, gravity (gravity), EM (electromagnetic) are also frequently used. The basic principle is to study the seismic method seismic wave propagation (seismic) by creating an artificial wave sources (hammers, vibrators, explosives, etc.).

Waves from an artificial source will spread below the surface and the response was captured on the surface using geophones (seismometers). Time and wave propagation pattern would indicate subsurface conditions. as shown in Figure 1 below. Gampar 1 is a seismic refraction method of measuring process with the vibration source 5 Kg hammer that struck to Plate (yellow) for presenting so the vibration source. This picture was taken when the author (brown camouflage pants) and Tim are measuring seismic refraction in Kajang, Malaysia.

Figure 1. Seismic Measurement Bias for both shallow (Asrillah, 2010)

If we may assume, a geophysics is like a “doctor of the earth”. They studied the conditions in the Earth by measuring on the surface of the earth. Measurements were carried out based on physical properties (physical) earth like elastic (seismic methods), density (method Graviti), electricity (geoelectric method), susceptibility (geomagnetic method) and others. Now the question is, mampukan geophysical methods used to study the layers of the earth to the earth’s core?

Earthquake Data Bum View Layers To Earth

Seismic measurements relying on artificial vibration source such as hammers, vibrators, explosives and others reach only superficial layers of the earth, is less than 1 Km. To study the condition of the earth to the earth’s core needed source of vibrations and earthquakes are a natural vibration sources that can be used to study the layers of the earth.

When there is an earthquake , the earthquake will be transmitting body and surface waves. Body wave consisting of primary waves (P) and secondary waves (S) will penetrate into the subsurface of the earth. Between P and S waves there is the uniqueness of each where the P waves can penetrate the solid and liquid layers while S waves can only pass through a dense layer only. P and S wave propagation passing through the layers of the earth can be seen in the figure that the generated by IRIS below.

Of seismic waves traveling through the earth layers are then detected by seismometers installed worldwide. The data is analyzed to didapatlah thickness and properties than each layer of earth. As in Figure 2, the S and P waves just past the mantle nature and dense and chewy. On the outer core layer of earth only P waves are detected, this means the earth’s outer core layer and the liquid nature of the S wave can not pass. Although all the things that happen in figure 2 is not as simple as I have described, but try to understand this simple.

Currently, throughout the world have a lot of equipment installed seismometer to study the layers of the earth by earthquake waves emitted. It was not always an earthquake to bring harm and there is wisdom behind every earthquake. Let us deepen knowledge of natural disasters so that we know every meaning of the natural disaster.