Disaster is an event or series of events that threaten and disrupt the lives and livelihood caused by both natural factors and non-natural factors and human factors resulting in the emergence of human lives, environmental damage, loss of property and psychological impact. Earthquake emergency kit examples of natural disasters include, among others in the form of earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, droughts, hurricanes and land langsor. While non-natural disasters are examples of social conflicts, epidemics and outbreaks of disease.
Judging from the location of geological, weather and social conditions, Indonesia is vulnerable to a variety of disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, landslides, storms and hurricanes, disease, drought and volcanoes. Appear when the threat of natural disasters (such as volcanoes) met with vulnerable communities (villages on the slopes of the volcano) that have a low ability or lack the ability to respond to the threat of it (no training or understanding of the volcano or not alert). The impact that emerges is the disruption of community life such as the destruction of homes, property damage and loss of life.
Because most disasters can happen anywhere with little or no warning, it is important to prepare for disasters to reduce the risk of impact. Through public education, can do some things to reduce the risk of disaster. In addition, so that the public knows the steps of disaster management so as to reduce the threat, reduce the impact, to prepare themselves appropriately in the event of a threat, safety, healing, and repair the damage that happens to be a safe community, independent and resilient to disasters
The volcano erupted as a result of magma in the earth were pushed out by a high-pressure gas or due to the movement of tectonic plates, pile the pressure and the hot liquid magma. The explosion brought ash and rock that burst with a bang, while the lava can flood the surrounding area. As a result of the eruption could cause casualties and huge property in the area radius of thousands of kilometers and could even affect the climate on earth is round, as happened at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines and Krakatoa in Banten Province, Indonesia.
a. impact eruption
Volcanic gases are gases released during a volcanic eruption, including Carbon Monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen (N2) which is harmful to humans. Lava is a very high temperature magma fluid that flows to the surface through volcanic craters. Lava dilute able to flow away from the source following the river or the valley, while viscous lava flows not far from the source.
Lahar is a flash flood on the slopes which consists of a mixture of volcanic material sized lump of clay till. Lava can be either hot or cold lava lava. Hot lava from the eruption of the volcano which has a crater lake, where the water of the lake gets hot and then mixed with the material out of the mouth of the eruption and the mountain. Cold or raining lava lava eruptions occur due to material mixing with rain water around the mountain and then make mud viscous and flows from the mountainside. This sludge can be hot or cold.
Hot clouds (wedhus trash) is the result of volcanic eruptions of the most dangerous because there is no way to escape the heat clouds except to evacuate before the mountain hot blowing is a cloud of material small eruption hot, exhaled winds with speeds up to 90 km per hour. Dropping hot cloud is a cloud of hot material large and small eruption that was brought up by the great strength of the eruption.
Large-sized material will fall around the peak, while the fine would fall in the tens, hundreds and even thousands of kilometers from the summit because of the influence of wind gusts. Hot clouds can cause severe burns to exposed body parts like the head, arm, neck or leg, and also cause shortness of breath until it can not breathe.
The eruption of volcano ash eruption is a very delicate material. Due to the impact of wind gusts could be felt hundreds of kilometers away. In such a large eruption happened in Mount Krakatau ash generated even cover matahasi rays for weeks.
b. Preparation Preparedness Measures in the Face Eruption
Concrete steps in preparedness eruption include:
- Recognizing the signs of disaster, mountain character and threats
- Make a map of threats, recognize the threat area, a safe area
- Establishing early warning systems
- Develop community radio to disseminate information about the status of the volcano
- Observing and understanding the volcano Map Prone Regions issued by the competent authority
- Preparing for disaster management planning and refugee camps track is ready with material basic needs (water, latrines, food, first aid) if necessary
- Preparing basic needs and important documents
- Monitor information provided by the volcano observation post (coordinated by the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation). Volcano observation post usually communicate the development status of the volcano via radio communication
c . The action Should Do When There Eruption
Actions taken when it has happened eruption are:
- Avoid areas prone to disasters such as mountain slopes, canyons, dry river flow and lava flow areas Avoid the outdoors, protect yourself from the ash eruptions
- Sign emergency protection space in the event of hot clouds
- Prepare yourself for the possibility of aftershocks Wear clothing that can protect the body, such as long-sleeved shirts, long pants, hats and more
- Protecting the eyes from dust, if any use eye protection such as goggles or anything that could prevent the entry of dust into the eyes Do not wear contact lenses
- Wear a mask or cloth to cover the mouth and nose
- When the decline of mountain ash try to cover her face with both hands
d. The action Should Do After the occurrence of eruption
After the eruption then that should be done is:
- Stay away from areas affected by ash
- Clean the roof of the ash heap because of the weight can damage or tear down the roof of the building
- Avoid driving in areas affected by ash falls because it could damage the engine, brakes, gearbox and ignition
Handling the eruption of the volcano is divided into three parts, the preparation before the eruption, when the explosion occurred and after the eruption.
a. Handling prior to eruption
- Monitoring and surveillance of activities in all active volcanoes
- Manufacture and supply of Disaster Prone Areas Map and Hazard Risk Zone Map Volcanos are supported by the Geological Map of the volcano
- Implement procedures remain volcanic eruption disaster management
- Coaching and the provision of information volcano
- Investigation and research of geological, geophysical and geochemical volcano
- Upgrading human resources (HR) and its supporting infrastructure such as infrastructure improvement san
b. Handling time of eruption
- Memebentuk fast moving team
- Increase monitoring and observation, supported by the addition of adequate equipment
- Improve reporting groove activity levels and frequency of reporting in accordance with the requirements
- Provide recommendations to the local government in accordance with procedures
c. Handling after eruption
- Inventory data, including the distribution and volume of the eruption
- Identify areas threatened by disasters
- Mmemberikan disaster management advice
- Regional arrangements provide short-term and long-term
- Fixing the broken monitoring facility
- Lowering the status of the activities, if things had gone downhill
- Continue monitoring on an ongoing basis.