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Why Indonesia Often Overcome Earthquake?

Www.whatcausesearthquakes.com – Natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis often unexpected when it came. It is known, in the past week Indonesia again shaken by an earthquake with a mild scale. One in Yogyakarta and Tegal.

Head of the Earthquake and Tsunami Mitigation Meteorological, Climatology and Geophysics, Daryono asserted, earthquakes often happens these days is not a potential tsunami.

“Because we were in a pile of plates, there will not be anything that leads to a tsunami,” said Daryono when contacted

Photo: Illustration Okezone

Daryono admitted, he was reluctant to speculate on the disaster that will face Indonesia in the future. For him, forecast or prediction as it will only cause anxiety to the community.

“I am still skeptical in this regard. For who is able to predict earthquakes or tsunamis? Divination just makes people afraid, when the earthquake itself is not necessarily arise,” he added.

He emphasized that there is still no technology that can predict the time and place an earthquake will happen in Indonesia. Therefore, Daryono advised the public to focus vigilance regarding the potential that exists in Indonesia.

For information, the potential for earthquakes in Indonesia is quite large due to be in a meeting a number of large tectonic plates are active and moving. The plate area stretching from Australia to Asia, the Asian plate to the Pacific from east to west south Sumatra to Java, Nusa Tenggara and Banda.

“Indonesia is the world access the plate earthquake, so it’s the natural thing when we earthquakes everywhere. And this does not mean that there will be a great earthquake, because it is unusual,” he said.

 

Survival Tips When There Volcanic Eruption

Volcano eruption is a part of volcanic activity known as the “eruption”. Almost all the volcanic activity associated with an active seismic zone because associated with plate boundaries. On this plate boundary change in pressure and temperature is very high so as to melt the surrounding material that is the incandescent liquid (magma). Magma will mengintrusi surrounding rock or soil through cracks rekahan- closer to the surface of the earth.

Each volcano has its own characteristics when viewed from the type of vomit or product. But any kind of products volcanic eruption activity remains catastrophic for life. Danger of volcanic eruptions have destructive and deadly risk, earthquake emergency kit

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Danger Volcano Eruption divided into two by the time it happened, that

Top Danger (Primary)

  1. Heat clouds , a mixture of material between the gas and rock eruptions (all sizes) is pushed down due to the high density and a saturated dough rolled turbulently like clouds down the mountain slopes. In addition to very high temperatures, between 300-700 0 C, lumpurnyapun very high speed,> 70 km / h (depending on slope).
  2. Throw Materials (incandescent) , occurs when the eruption (magmatic) takes place. Far lontarannya depends on the size of the eruption energy, could reach hundreds of meters away. In addition to a high temperature (> 200 0 C), the size of the material was large with a diameter of> 10 cm so it can burn at a time to hurt, even deadly sentient beings. Also commonly referred to as “volcanic bombs”.
  3. Abu heavy rain , occurs when a volcanic eruption is in progress. Fine-sized material (ash and fine sand) that wind and rain fell as ash and direction depending on the wind direction. Because the size is fine, these materials will be very dangerous for the respiratory, eye, ground water pollution, destruction of vegetation and contains chemical elements that are acidic so it can lead to corrosion of the zinc and aircraft engines.
  4. Lava , the magma reaches the surface, the nature of liquid (a viscous fluid and high temperature, between 700-1200 0 C. Because the liquid, then lava flows generally follow the slope and burn anything in its path. When the lava has cooled, then form into stone ( igneous rocks) and the local path will be a stone fields.
  5. Toxic gases , appears not always preceded by volcanic eruptions because this gas can exit through cavities or fractures-fractures found in volcanic regions. The main gas that usually arises is CO 2 , H 2 S, HCl, SO 2 , and CO. Which often causes death is gas CO 2 . Some mountain that has the characteristics of a toxic gas eruption is the volcano Tangkuban Perahu, Dieng Volcano, Mount Ciremai, and Mount Papandayan.
  6. Tsunami, generally can occur in volcanic island, where the explosion occurred when the materials will provide energy to push the sea water towards the coast, causing a tsunami. The greater the volume the greater the eruption material wave lifted ashore. For example is the case of the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883.

Followup danger (Secondary)
Danger follow volcanic eruptions are dangers that occur after the explosion took place. When a volcano will erupt in the accumulation of material in various sizes at the summit and upper slopes. In the rainy season, most of the material will be carried away by rainwater and mud created dough down into the valley as rocks flood, the flood is called lava.

Preparation Facing Volcanic Eruption

  • Recognizing the local area to determine a safe place to evacuate.
  • Make a plan for disaster management.
  • Prepare for evacuation if necessary.
  • Preparing basic needs

If There Volcanic Eruption

  • Avoid areas prone to disasters such as mountain slopes, valleys and lava flow area.
  • Open space, protect themselves from the ash and pyroclastic. Prepare yourself for the possibility of aftershocks.
  • Wear clothing that can protect the body such as: long sleeves, long pants, hats and more.
  • Do not wear contact lenses.
  • Wear a mask or cloth to cover the mouth and nose
  • When the decline in hot clouds try to cover her face with both hands.

After Volcanic Eruption Occurred

  • Stay away from areas affected by ash
  • Clean the roof of the ashes. Due to its weight, can damage or tear down the roof of the building.
  • Avoid driving in areas affected by ash can cause engine damage

VOLCANO DISASTER MITIGATION
Efforts to reduce the number of casualties and property losses due to volcanic eruptions, action needs to be done:

  1. Monitoring , volcanic activity was monitored for 24 hours using a seismic recorder (seismograph). Daily data monitoring results are reported to the office of the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (DVMBG) in Bandung using SSB radio communication. The volcano observation post officers submit monthly reports to the local government.
  2. Emergency , the actions taken by DVMBG when increased volcanic activity, among other things evaluate the report and data, forming the Emergency Response Team, sent a team to the location, conduct an integrated examination.
  3. Mapping , Map Disaster Prone Region volcano can explain the type and nature of volcanic hazards, disaster-prone areas, the direction of escape, refugee camps, and post disaster management.
  4. The investigation of the volcano using the method of Geology, Geophysics and Geochemistry. The investigation is shown in the form of books, maps and other documents.
  5. Socialization , officers dissemination to local governments and communities, especially those living around the volcano. A form of socialization may be sending information to local governments and direct outreach to the community.

DISASTER CAUSED BY EXPLOSION MOUNTAIN

Disaster is an event or series of events that threaten and disrupt the lives and livelihood caused by both natural factors and non-natural factors and human factors resulting in the emergence of human lives, environmental damage, loss of property and psychological impact. Earthquake emergency kit examples of natural disasters include, among others in the form of earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, droughts, hurricanes and land langsor. While non-natural disasters are examples of social conflicts, epidemics and outbreaks of disease.

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Judging from the location of geological, weather and social conditions, Indonesia is vulnerable to a variety of disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, landslides, storms and hurricanes, disease, drought and volcanoes. Appear when the threat of natural disasters (such as volcanoes) met with vulnerable communities (villages on the slopes of the volcano) that have a low ability or lack the ability to respond to the threat of it (no training or understanding of the volcano or not alert). The impact that emerges is the disruption of community life such as the destruction of homes, property damage and loss of life.
Because most disasters can happen anywhere with little or no warning, it is important to prepare for disasters to reduce the risk of impact. Through public education, can do some things to reduce the risk of disaster. In addition, so that the public knows the steps of disaster management so as to reduce the threat, reduce the impact, to prepare themselves appropriately in the event of a threat, safety, healing, and repair the damage that happens to be a safe community, independent and resilient to disasters
The volcano erupted as a result of magma in the earth were pushed out by a high-pressure gas or due to the movement of tectonic plates, pile the pressure and the hot liquid magma. The explosion brought ash and rock that burst with a bang, while the lava can flood the surrounding area. As a result of the eruption could cause casualties and huge property in the area radius of thousands of kilometers and could even affect the climate on earth is round, as happened at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines and Krakatoa in Banten Province, Indonesia.
a. impact eruption
Volcanic gases are gases released during a volcanic eruption, including Carbon Monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen (N2) which is harmful to humans. Lava is a very high temperature magma fluid that flows to the surface through volcanic craters. Lava dilute able to flow away from the source following the river or the valley, while viscous lava flows not far from the source.
Lahar is a flash flood on the slopes which consists of a mixture of volcanic material sized lump of clay till. Lava can be either hot or cold lava lava. Hot lava from the eruption of the volcano which has a crater lake, where the water of the lake gets hot and then mixed with the material out of the mouth of the eruption and the mountain. Cold or raining lava lava eruptions occur due to material mixing with rain water around the mountain and then make mud viscous and flows from the mountainside. This sludge can be hot or cold.
Hot clouds (wedhus trash) is the result of volcanic eruptions of the most dangerous because there is no way to escape the heat clouds except to evacuate before the mountain hot blowing is a cloud of material small eruption hot, exhaled winds with speeds up to 90 km per hour. Dropping hot cloud is a cloud of hot material large and small eruption that was brought up by the great strength of the eruption.
Large-sized material will fall around the peak, while the fine would fall in the tens, hundreds and even thousands of kilometers from the summit because of the influence of wind gusts. Hot clouds can cause severe burns to exposed body parts like the head, arm, neck or leg, and also cause shortness of breath until it can not breathe.
The eruption of volcano ash eruption is a very delicate material. Due to the impact of wind gusts could be felt hundreds of kilometers away. In such a large eruption happened in Mount Krakatau ash generated even cover matahasi rays for weeks.

b. Preparation Preparedness Measures in the Face Eruption
Concrete steps in preparedness eruption include:
  1. Recognizing the signs of disaster, mountain character and threats
  2. Make a map of threats, recognize the threat area, a safe area
  3. Establishing early warning systems
  4. Develop community radio to disseminate information about the status of the volcano
  5. Observing and understanding the volcano Map Prone Regions issued by the competent authority
  6. Preparing for disaster management planning and refugee camps track is ready with material basic needs (water, latrines, food, first aid) if necessary
  7. Preparing basic needs and important documents
  8. Monitor information provided by the volcano observation post (coordinated by the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation). Volcano observation post usually communicate the development status of the volcano via radio communication

c . The action Should Do When There Eruption
Actions taken when it has happened eruption are:
  1. Avoid areas prone to disasters such as mountain slopes, canyons, dry river flow and lava flow areas Avoid the outdoors, protect yourself from the ash eruptions
  2. Sign emergency protection space in the event of hot clouds
  3. Prepare yourself for the possibility of aftershocks Wear clothing that can protect the body, such as long-sleeved shirts, long pants, hats and more
  4. Protecting the eyes from dust, if any use eye protection such as goggles or anything that could prevent the entry of dust into the eyes Do not wear contact lenses
  5. Wear a mask or cloth to cover the mouth and nose
  6. When the decline of mountain ash try to cover her face with both hands
d. The action Should Do After the occurrence of eruption
After the eruption then that should be done is:
  1. Stay away from areas affected by ash
  2. Clean the roof of the ash heap because of the weight can damage or tear down the roof of the building
  3. Avoid driving in areas affected by ash falls because it could damage the engine, brakes, gearbox and ignition
Handling the eruption of the volcano is divided into three parts, the preparation before the eruption, when the explosion occurred and after the eruption.
a. Handling prior to eruption
  1. Monitoring and surveillance of activities in all active volcanoes
  2. Manufacture and supply of Disaster Prone Areas Map and Hazard Risk Zone Map Volcanos are supported by the Geological Map of the volcano
  3. Implement procedures remain volcanic eruption disaster management
  4. Coaching and the provision of information volcano
  5. Investigation and research of geological, geophysical and geochemical volcano
  6. Upgrading human resources (HR) and its supporting infrastructure such as infrastructure improvement san
b. Handling time of eruption
  1. Memebentuk fast moving team
  2. Increase monitoring and observation, supported by the addition of adequate equipment
  3. Improve reporting groove activity levels and frequency of reporting in accordance with the requirements
  4. Provide recommendations to the local government in accordance with procedures

c. Handling after eruption
  1. Inventory data, including the distribution and volume of the eruption
  2. Identify areas threatened by disasters
  3. Mmemberikan disaster management advice
  4. Regional arrangements provide short-term and long-term
  5. Fixing the broken monitoring facility
  6. Lowering the status of the activities, if things had gone downhill
  7. Continue monitoring on an ongoing basis.

Learning From Earthquakes Nepal

Nepal earthquake occurred on 25 April 2015 with a strength of 7.9 magnitude and re-experiencing an earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on May 12, 2015. Thousands of people are reported dead, many still undiscovered, injury, physical damage, and lead to a crisis on Nepalis. Judging from the history of natural disasters that occurred in Nepal, major earthquakes have occurred in Nepal in 1934, 1966, 1980, and 1988.

Each earthquake caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. Nepal itself is a country with levels of hazards (threats) earthquake is high based on the location of Nepal that are in the Indian and Eurasian continental plates that collide resulting in earthquakes.

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Based on some of the analysis of the number of fatalities, injuries or physical damage is caused in Nepal itself has a vulnerability ( vulnerability ) associated with the threat of earthquakes, earthquake kit list some vulnerabilities was less unprepared citizens in the face of the possibility of an earthquake, because of the earthquake last in history occurred in 1988.

Many buildings are not designed or reduce the likelihood of anti-earthquake badly damaged by the earthquake, and the building that was the old age so easily collapsed in the quake. With the hazards and vulnerability is high, the fair finally many fatalities, injuries and physical damage caused by the earthquake.

WHO mentions three components of the disaster, the hazards , vulnerability and risk . Hazards (hazard / threat) is experiencing potential disasters that can impact on the loss of life, injury, or loss / damage to the material. Characterized catastrophic potential location, intensity, frequency, and the possibilities that can happen. Vulnerability is a condition of vulnerability caused by physical factors, social, economic, and environmental effects associated with hazards . Risk is the possibility of experiencing the negative impact of disaster damage or a combination of hazards and vulnerability .

In connection with the earthquake disaster Nepal, Indonesia can learn from such disasters as Indonesia also have hazards and vulnerability are high that has a risk of high as well. Indonesia prone to earthquakes and has proved one of the natural disasters that frequently hit Indonesia is an earthquake. Why is that, because Indonesia Indonesia covered by the Pacific ring of fire arc ( Pacific ring of fire ) as indicated by the chain of mountains of Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara and Maluku.

In Indonesia, there are as many as approximately 129 volcanoes are still active and the number of volcanoes in Indonesia as much as 14 percent of the active volcano on earth. If the track circuit made volcanoes in Indonesia, length 7,000-7,500 kilometers and a width of 50-200 kilometers.

Indonesia is also located at the confluence of three major tectonic plates of the earth, namely the Indian Ocean and Australia in the south, the Pacific Ocean to the East and Eurasia. The third relative movement of tectonic plates and two other plates, the Philippine Sea and the Carolina cause earthquakes in the border area between the plates meeting and also lead to a fault-regional fault which then became the regional center of the earthquake source.

Referring to the history of the earthquake in Indonesia has resulted in the number of casualties could not be said a little, injuries, and damage to infrastructure. This is a proof of risk which is owned by Indonesia regarding the earthquake disaster is high. In addition to the hazards , Indonesia also has been questioned about its readiness in the face of the earthquake. Readiness in the face of the threat of earthquakes that can occur at any time can include how to save themselves when it is inside the building, while inside the building, and while traveling by car.

What if a big earthquake densely populated places and buildings like most areas in major cities of Indonesia ?. Not many of us are aware of the importance of disaster preparedness. How many of us who became aware after the earthquake Nepal? Do we have to wait after a new incident reacted to prepare? We should be able to learn from Nepal earthquake, that our country also has great potential to experience a similar incident and have plenty of evidence of the history of the earthquake that occurred in Indonesia to prepare for disasters that may occur at any time.

Nepal Earthquake year and 12 facts behind it …

Luka torn when the earthquake occurred in Nepal 25 April 2015 until now has not healed, best earthquake kit in areas where the damage occurred is running very slow rebuilding.

At least there are 12 facts that prove that the process of restoration of the lives of people there walking very slowly.

1. The headless Stupa
Boudhanath in the capital of Nepal , Kathmandu, including the world’s cultural heritage of UNESCO .

The stupa was that so one important goal Buddhist pilgrimage from the Himalayas, the loss of one of the peak of the roof. Is still being restored.

2. Should be demolished
Durbar Square (Durbar field) also includes a world cultural heritage of UNESCO .

The temple complex was first damaged by an earthquake. Some temples had been demolished, while a number of other possibilities can not be saved again.

3. Living among the supporting pillars
Residents Kathmandu are familiar with the views of the buildings damaged by the earthquake.

Repairs are not going well apparently accepted without much protest.

4. As last year
the District Sindhupalchowk, east of Kathmandu, so one of the areas worst-hit.

Now Chautara populated town of 15,000 people, it still looks like when the earthquake just happened.

5. Clinics in tents
admissions from the emergency in Chautara. Doctors often still have to work under the hood.

The old building how susceptible because of the earthquake, so it can only be used again after a thorough refurbishment.

6. Not to tap home-roofed shack
Like last year, in Sindhupalchowk most people still live in shacks with tin roofs.

More than 80 percent of houses were destroyed by the earthquake. Especially in rural areas, there is little help.

7. Infectious diseases
huts set up temporary. Many people live in a narrow space together. Infectious diseases spread very easily.

8. Help yourself
Residents had long been looking forward again on aid from the government in Kathmandu.

They take steps to help themselves.

9. There can be saved
Almost all schools in Sindhupalchowk fully can not be used again.

Some things can be repaired, but nothing that can not, such as schools in Mailchaur.

Cold and isolated 10.
The process of learning is held in classrooms while. Construction tin huts cuara susceptible to wind and bad, and can not be warmed.

11. The rest of the ruins of
the high school students still remember the disaster that occurred a year ago. Thulosirubari school in the field is still lying about the rest of the old buildings were demolished.

12. Not much damage Everest
in the Khumbu region also found the silent witness of the earthquake disaster last year.

But, compared with Sindhupalchowk district, tourist area around Mount Everest is not much damage.

Japan Earthquake Difference equations with & Ecuador

In the last few days we were surprised by the occurrence of earthquake Japan, according to the USGS occurred on 14 April 2016 at 22:03 pm and dated 15 April 2016 at 23:25 pm. Japan Earthquake Japan earthquake first with the second only 25 hours later with a magnitude of earthquakes is greater. Intermittent 31.5 hours later, an earthquake with a magnitude greater struck Ecuador on 17 April 2016 at 6:58 AM. On this occasion, I tried to discuss, roughly what similarities and differences between the two earthquakes that?

japan earthquake 5

Read here: earthquake kit list

1. Sources of the Japanese earthquake and Ecuador
According to the USGS, the earthquake Japan with a magnitude 7 occurred on land epicenter Mw 32 782 ° N, 130 726 ° E with a depth of 10.0 km. An earthquake of this land give strong enough shock effect because it is located 10 Km underfoot occupation Kumamoto province.

Almost as well as the Japanese earthquake, Ecuador earthquake which occurred on 17 April 2016 occurred on land and the epicenter 0.371 ° N 79 940 ° W at a depth of 19.2 km. Although the epicenter equally on the ground, both the quake had a mechanism different earthquake .

2. Mechanism Earthquake
Japanese earthquake with magnitude 7 Mw, according to the USGS occurred by a mechanism in the form of Fault sources Scroll to the direction of the fault moves to 222 ° field of rubble north and inclination of 77 ° from the horizontal plane.

japan earthquake source
Japan earthquake source mechanisms such as shear fracture (left image) and the seismic source mechanisms such as fault ride Ecuador (picture right). (Image Source: USGS, 2016)
Unlike the Japanese earthquake, earthquake seismic sources such as Ecuador have Fault Ride with the direction of the fault moves to 26 ° field of rubble north and inclination of 23 ° from the horizontal plane. Ecuador quake occurred in a subduction zone as a result of interaction between Nasca plate and the Pacific plate.

3. Strength of the Land Shocks
Japanese Earthquake
The epicenter of the earthquake in Japan (Left) and Ecuador (right) are shown with an arrow (USGS, 2016)
Having a source mechanism and depth of different sources, the Japanese earthquake and Ecuador have a little difference in strength of ground shaking. Based on the map of the ground shaking (intensity scale) issued by the USGS as shown in FIG.

Japanese earthquake with magnitude 7 shock Mw scale land has a stronger intensity. USGS noted the scale of intensity up to IX MMI ( Modified Mercalli Intensity) along the source of the fault.

Ecuador quake with a magnitude of 7.8 Mw has a level of ground shaking in the scale of intensity VIII MMI, lower than Japan’s earthquake.

4. Number of Victims
Japan Earthquake that occurred 14 and 15 April 2016 has led to 42 people were killed, over 3000 injured, and 44,000 people to flee and destroying a number of buildings ( Jiji Press ).

BBC Indonesia noted, until I write this article, Ecuador quake with a magnitude of more powerful has caused 235 people died, 1500 were injured. Number of victims of more earthquake Ecuador compared to the Japanese earthquake.

5. Damage
The second quake had caused severe damage in areas close to the earthquake source. The picture below will be explained as a second level of damage due to the earthquake.

Studying the Earth layer with Earthquake Data

So far, we’ve been introduced to some of the layers of the earth. When we first learn geography in high school, the reader must have seen the earth split and appear multiple layers. When looking at the layers of the earth, it would appear the questions in our minds about “how geoscience experts know the thickness of the layer of earth and physical properties (liquid or solid) layer of the earth”.

 Since time immemorial, humans continue to try to learn the layers of the earth by means of drilling lining but very limited drilling method therein. The deepest drilling ever perpetrated by man to date is 12 Km in Russia (cmiiw). The drilling was hampered by very hot temperatures under the surface and it is not possible to drill up to a depth exceeding 12 Km. If “ngebor” wrote only up12 Km, how the experts can be certain terrestrial muplikasi core layer of the earth to the Earth? Answers to these questions on the use of seismic methods (vibration / earthquake waves) that has long been used by geophysicists.
Layer of earth

Seismic Method and Earth Layers

Methods Seismic is one method of measurement Geophysical most widely used by experts Geophysics in studying the earth and looking for natural resources (oil, natural gas, etc.), even though there are still many many geophysical methods such as methods Geolistrik, geomagnetic, gravity (gravity), EM (electromagnetic) are also frequently used. The basic principle is to study the seismic method seismic wave propagation (seismic) by creating an artificial wave sources (hammers, vibrators, explosives, etc.).

Waves from an artificial source will spread below the surface and the response was captured on the surface using geophones (seismometers). Time and wave propagation pattern would indicate subsurface conditions. as shown in Figure 1 below. Gampar 1 is a seismic refraction method of measuring process with the vibration source 5 Kg hammer that struck to Plate (yellow) for presenting so the vibration source. This picture was taken when the author (brown camouflage pants) and Tim are measuring seismic refraction in Kajang, Malaysia.

Figure 1. Seismic Measurement Bias for both shallow (Asrillah, 2010)

If we may assume, a geophysics is like a “doctor of the earth”. They studied the conditions in the Earth by measuring on the surface of the earth. Measurements were carried out based on physical properties (physical) earth like elastic (seismic methods), density (method Graviti), electricity (geoelectric method), susceptibility (geomagnetic method) and others. Now the question is, mampukan geophysical methods used to study the layers of the earth to the earth’s core?

Earthquake Data Bum View Layers To Earth

Seismic measurements relying on artificial vibration source such as hammers, vibrators, explosives and others reach only superficial layers of the earth, is less than 1 Km. To study the condition of the earth to the earth’s core needed source of vibrations and earthquakes are a natural vibration sources that can be used to study the layers of the earth.

When there is an earthquake , the earthquake will be transmitting body and surface waves. Body wave consisting of primary waves (P) and secondary waves (S) will penetrate into the subsurface of the earth. Between P and S waves there is the uniqueness of each where the P waves can penetrate the solid and liquid layers while S waves can only pass through a dense layer only. P and S wave propagation passing through the layers of the earth can be seen in the figure that the generated by IRIS below.

Of seismic waves traveling through the earth layers are then detected by seismometers installed worldwide. The data is analyzed to didapatlah thickness and properties than each layer of earth. As in Figure 2, the S and P waves just past the mantle nature and dense and chewy. On the outer core layer of earth only P waves are detected, this means the earth’s outer core layer and the liquid nature of the S wave can not pass. Although all the things that happen in figure 2 is not as simple as I have described, but try to understand this simple.

Currently, throughout the world have a lot of equipment installed seismometer to study the layers of the earth by earthquake waves emitted. It was not always an earthquake to bring harm and there is wisdom behind every earthquake. Let us deepen knowledge of natural disasters so that we know every meaning of the natural disaster.

Can Earthquake Predicted?

In recent days, the people of northern Sumatra feared by SMS circulating about the prediction of large earthquakes. It was said in a circulating SMS from mobile to mobile and BB to BB, please write to 12 Sr (magnitude). I can not imagine the scale of the earthquake 12 Sr, for the info to my comrades that the scale of 12 Sr = 1000 time scale 9 earthquake Sr means up to 1000 times more powerful than the earthquake 26 December 2004 ?? A wah ada2 sms.

 In this paper, I do not discuss about the scale of the earthquake but more willing to discuss about earthquake prediction that has been disturbing residents. To know the scale of the earthquake, the reader can click on this link earthquake preparedness kit

Earthquake prediction

A person is said to be able to predict earthquakes if can determine exactly 4-D seismic source (x, y, z, t) or can determine exactly Longitude / longitude (x), Latitud / latitude (y), depth (z) and time ( t) or our language simpelkan be he knows exactly where and when the occurrence of the earthquake. If until now there Seismology experts who are able to do earthquake prediction ?? that can be done now is to determine the epicenter of the earthquake after the earthquake and not before the earthquake. Info latest earthquake can be seen on this link, Earthquake BMKG Latest .

Resolutely authors say that until now there is no single seismologist (earthquake) that is able to predict earthquakes accurately. They were able to estimate is an area that will be an earthquake within a certain period, on how and at what precisely can not be answered. The simplest example I have written in this website is also about seismic Gap . Currently seismologists try to find an area with potential for an earthquake of seismic gaps that have occurred since the last 30-100 years. Rare earthquake region is expected to be an earthquake, but when exactly will happen, no one else knows seismologist.

Misleading SMS

Several days later, the people of northern Sumatra region of Aceh particularly disturbed by the circulation of sms will be an earthquake in the late afternoon with a scale of 12 Sr. SMS is a sms astray misleading, the authors are expecting that people who receive this SMS does not need to worry and worry and do not forward this SMS to relatives. SMS is said to be misguided and misleading because there is no scientific evidence and sent by people who do not want to see us live in peace.

Let Preparedness Earthquake

After 11 earthquake of April 2012, some experts predict there will be another earthquake in western Sumatra region, but when exactly will happen nobody knows. Although there is still potential for an earthquake, we actually do not need to fear people and worried No Kill earthquake , which killed was rubble for earthquake and tsunami . Naturally comrades still remember the earthquake December 26, 2004 with a 9.1 scale Sr. Are there earthquake killed Acehnese ??

I guess none of the people who died in the earthquake but a lot of people who died due to the earthquake that effect after Tsunami . So citizens need not fear an earthquake and not be affected by SMS unclear source. However, if the 1-100 years ahead there is an earthquake above 8 Sr, then the public should stay away from the beachside area. No need to wait for the siren (warning) since the main earthquake (mainshock) which are already a warning (warning)

May our society increasingly wise in accepting and responding to any information and did not believe in earthquake prediction and information which is not true concerning natural disasters .

Tsunami Waste Management Deliver Self-Reliance

Earthquake survival kit – Have you ever imagine there are ten million cubic meters of waste on the home page? Or piles of trash consisting of various types of goods inhabit the fields where your family’s daily food hang?

This condition is experienced by residents of Aceh after the earthquake and tsunami that struck in 2004. About 73 thousand hectares of farmland were damaged, 26 thousand of which contains garbage.

This makes the coming of garbage Agency of the United Nations (UN) through the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) organized a post-tsunami program garbage refineries. Given the name Tsunami Recovery Waste Management Program (TRWMP), the program was established in 2005 with the goal of cleaning debris, waste management systems, and creating jobs.

“Tsunami produce ten million cubic meters of waste, 60 to 70 percent is rubbish that can be recycled. Can be used for roads, courts, housing,” said Communication Specialist UNDP Aceh and Nias Lesley Wright when met in Jakarta in the “International Conference. Lessons from Indonesia’s Experiences In Disaster Reconstruction and Preparedness.

TRWMP garbage refineries successfully cleared more than one million cubic meters of tsunami waste. Including the use of recyclable waste for the rehabilitation of 100 kilometers of roads and 12,000 units of wood furniture manufacturing.

Most importantly, is the provision of jobs for local residents. Waste management is claimed to be a source of livelihood for the 400 thousand people. In addition, TRWMP also conduct training for 1,300 government workers and socializing recycling bins for 36 thousand schoolchildren.

disaster, earthquake, tsunami, Indonesia, Aceh, mitigationTRWMP is part of the Multi Donor Fund (MDF), which will complete its tenure on December 31, 2012. However, Wright added, there are still many things to do in Aceh. “Today we enter the phase of development, a lot of things that require cooperation capacity of communities and local government,” explained Wright.

It said President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, aid from donor countries make Indonesia so much quicker doing development in areas affected by the disaster. When the earthquake and tsunami hit Aceh, there is a helping hand from 47 countries and 264 national and local organizations.

“The experience and learning Aceh after the earthquake disaster has prompted a paradigm shift. From the initial emergency response, reconstruction and rehabilitation, is now coupled to disaster risk reduction,” said the President.

The earthquake and tsunami hit Aceh on December 26, 2004 magnitude 9.1 earthquake M. In addition to befall the earth Veranda of Mecca, the tsunami also destroyed Sri Lanka, Thailand, Somalia, Myanmar, the Maldives, and some other countries who come into contact with the Indian Ocean. The amount of the magnitude of this disaster makes it into the history of one of the deadliest disasters in the world.

How Process Earthquake

Recent earthquake – Earthquakes are one of the most daunting natural disasters in the world. There are dozens or even hundreds of very strong earthquake and caused thousands and even millions of lives. Some earthquakes are recorded as the most powerful earthquakes including the earthquake that occurred on January 23, 1556 in Shensei, China. The quake claimed the lives of up to 830,000 people. The earthquake had a strength of up to 8 on the Richter scale.

Another earthquake also famous for the deadly was the earthquake that occurred in Syria on August 9 in 1138. The earthquake claimed the lives of up to 230,000 people. In our country, the most powerful earthquake occurred in 2004. Precisely on December 26 that occurred in Sumatra. The earthquake had a strength of about 9.1 on the Richter scale which caused the death of up to 227 898 inhabitants. The very strong earthquake comparable to the power of 1,000 atomic bombs.

the occurrence of earthquakes

Earthquakes in Indonesia is considered as the third largest earthquake in the world since 1900 in addition to the earthquake in Alaska and the earthquake in South Asia that led to the deaths of more than 300 thousand inhabitants.

The types of earthquakes

Earthquakes are usually classified into several categories based on: the depth, wave power, the epicenter, and based on the cause.

The first earthquake was an earthquake based on the depth. The earthquake is divided into three parts, namely, shallow earthquake, the earthquake and the earthquake in the middle. Shallow earthquakes typically occur at a depth of approximately 100 km from the earth’s surface. While the mid earthquake will occur at depths between 100 and 300 km below the earth’s surface. While the earthquake occurred at a depth of more than 300 km from the earth’s surface.

Another earthquake is an earthquake based on the cause. There are at least three types of earthquakes based on the causes of which are volcanic earthquakes are caused by the eruption of Mount Merapi or because of magma. The second was the earthquake due to debris or also known as the earthquake Terban. While the third is caused due to tectonic plate shifts.

Earthquake based epicenter is divided into two parts, namely a linear earthquake and earthquake Sentral.

Lastly, based on the strength of earthquake waves has three parts: the earthquake that caused by primary wave has a speed of between 7 Up to 14 km per second. And the second is due to the earthquake secondary waves that propagate at a speed of about 4 to 7 kilometers per second. Earthquake waves are categorized based on the strength of the latter is the result of long-wave earthquake have reached speeds of 3 to 4 kilometers per second.

The occurrence of earthquakes

The term “earthquake” refers to the ground vibrations caused by the energy released into the earth Due to the seismic waves. This can happen because in fact the earth beneath us is moving and shifting inside. Experts say that an earthquake usually begins as a result of the movement that occurs at the point of the Earth’s interior. If there is pressure and shifts, there are some parts of the layer in a very fragile earth will create a fault or a shift that we perceive as an earthquake. Most of the earthquakes caused by collisions between plates or fracture. An earthquake of this model is known as tectonic.

If the rocks that are in the earth’s crust under pressure due to the movement of plates on the continental shelf, the earthquake will occur. The slab slab is a slab that is in the ocean or a continent. In the process, when a slab of oceanic or continental plates on the scrape and collide with each other, it will result in a shock wave (earthquake).