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Explanations of Understanding Astronomical Layout

Every place on Earth, must have its own astronomical layout. Recent earthquakes in the world however, there are still many people who do not quite understand about the location of astronomical. Therefore, in this article Learning in Geography will explain fully and clearly. Definition of astronomical layout itself is a form of point coordinates that happens for a place associated with the position of latitude and longitude.

Definition of latitude are lines on a globe parallel to the equator (the equator). Thus, the northern latitudes (LU) mean position or a place situated in the north of the equator (the equator), and southern latitude (LS) mean position or a place that is located south of the equator. Of the distance between the latitude is measured in degrees. The lowest is 0 ° latitude (the equator) and the highest latitude is 90 ° (north pole and south pole).

Astronomical layout PenertianMeanwhile, the definition of longitude (meridians) are lines connecting the north pole and a south pole. Position perpendicular to the line of latitude. In general, all meridians large semicircular. Just like latitude, longitude distance was measured in degrees. Lots of longitude that can be drawn, but that is not too tight then, made every 15 °.
For Indonesia itself, the location of the gari astronomical latitude is 6 ° N – 11 ° S. Meanwhile, the location of the longitude is 95 ° E – 141 ° E. To understand more about the meaning and intent of astronomical layout, let us see explanation below:

Based on the location of the astronomical, Indonesia is located in the tropical climate. Tropical climate zones are in between 23.5 ° N or tropic of Cancer, and 23.5 ° S or tropic of Capricorn. This is what makes Indonesia a fairly high temperature, between 26 ° – 28 ° C. Rainfall is quite a lot, between 700-7000 mm / year. In addition, the weathering process is also quite fast. The tropical climate was also led to the presence of various types of animal and plant species in Indonesia.

Location of astronomical longitudes to affect one location in terms of time. Because of the location of the longitude of sufficient width (ie about 46 °), then Indonesia has 3 different time zone. The division of the first time zone set on January 1, 1964. However, on January 1, 1988, in Indonesia has enacted a new regional division. After the entry into force of the new regional breakdown, the shift time in some places.

Here also the division of time zones in Indonesia today:

  • Western Indonesia time zone (GMT)

GMT is based on the base meridian 105 BT. Covering all provinces in Sumatra, Java, West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan Province (difference time 7 hours ahead of Greenwich time)

  • Central part of Indonesia time zone (PST)

WITA is based on the base meridian 120 BT, covering all provinces in East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, Bali, NTT, NTB, and all provinces in Sulawesi (time difference 8 hours ahead of Greenwich time)

  • Regions Eastern Indonesia time (WIT)

WIT is based on the base meridian 135 BT, covering the whole province of Irian Jaya (Papua), Maluku and North Maluku (the difference in time of 9 hours ahead of Greenwich time)

Now that’s an explanation and understanding of astronomical layout. May be useful!

Signs Landslide Prone Regions

The rainy season usually starts in September until March. In these months are very frequent hydrogeological disasters caused by heavy rains such as landslides, flash floods (debris flow) , and flooding due to poor drainage system. What causes earthquakes facts these three natural disasters that almost certainly would indicate an increase in activity during the rainy season and they also are interconnected. Landslides subscribed during the rainy season can also be the cause of the flood is sourced upstream there.

 areas prone to landslides

At this writing, I do not want to explain the cause of the occurrence of flash floods and flood inundation but based on how we see the signs of nature and signs of aareas prone to the danger of landslides. Hopefully by knowing the signs we can all avoid landslides in the rainy season is often the case. Signs of a region that is vulnerable to the danger of landslides, among others:

1. The area is hilly with slopes more than 20 degrees ; hilly areas and steep slopes are prone to landslides mark the first region. This is reinforced by the many irregularly tree felling and cutting slopes were very steep for the benefit of road construction.

2. The thick soil layer on top of the slope ; our country is tropical with very high rainfall causes the rock forming the hill into . The high level of  stone that eventually became the land is indicated by a thick layer of soil-forming slopes. This thick layer of soil underneath if there are layers of impermeable rock causing ground water impermeable layer of rock which had become a sliding plane which allows the occurrence of landslides. Thick soil layer on top of the slopes will be a reminder of areas prone to landslides and the public must be observant to see it.

3. The system of water governance and land poor ; Poor drainage system at the bottom of the slopes and bad land use is also a sign of a region that experienced landslides. Bad water system is causing the rain water into the slope when rain settles down there so that adds to the burden slopes and landslides last pass.

4. The slopes open or bare ; Slopes that are not overgrown perpohonan and not covered with a layer covers can direct rain water into the slope. Case number 4 together with case number 3 above.

5. There is a crack horseshoe at the top of the cliff ; Region cracked hoof-shaped over the cliffs indicate that the rock has begun to move. This situation will be exacerbated if the rain in a long time.

6. The number of spring / seepage; Many water seepage on the slopes of a cliff indicate the cliff is already very saturated water or are met by water. The amount of water in the slopes as described in number 3 could lead to landslides.

7. The flow of the river at the base of the slope ; This incident is similar to kejadi number 6 but at number 7 is the saturation level of the water is so severe as to form the River Swift in the bottom of the slopes.

8. Imposition of excessive slope; Construction of houses and other buildings at the top of the slope could increase the burden on the slopes. When a slope initially stable but due to the load on it is too big then over time it will be unstable slope again and eventually could lead to landslides.

9. Cutting the cliffs to build houses or roads; Most of the landslide that occurred in our country is an avalanche caused by cutting the steep slopes in the interests of road construction. Almost every rainy season we can be sure there will be slopes along the hills will be a landslide.

Hopefully to- 9 marks the landslide-prone area can add to our knowledge of the landslide. Recognize the signs and always be alert and Disaster Literacy ……. !!!